The glutes are a set of three muscles that work on the hip and that can also have an affect on the knee. To stretch the glutes effectively, it can help to first of all understand the glute muscles and what they do. It can also help to understand how to anchor these muscles so that they can be stretched effectively.
The glutes are a set of three muscles that are located at the side and rear of the hip bone.
The gluteus minimus is positioned towards the front of the hip bone and from there extends back and down to attach to the top of the femur.
The glutues medius is more centrally located. It extends downwards to attach to the top of the femur, in part overlapping the gluteus minimus.
The gluteus maximus is located at the rear of the hip. It in part overlaps the gluteus medius. The deeper layer of this muscle attaches to the back of the femur.
The more superficial portion attaches to the back edge of the IT band which runs down the side of the thigh to attach to the top of the tibia.
Let's assume an upright standing position with weight on one leg. The other leg can be slightly lifted with the toe(s) lightly touching the floor.
On the supporting leg side:
On the lifted leg side:
On the supporting leg side:
On the lifted leg side:
On the supporting leg side:
On the unweighted side:
To stretch the glutes while standing we can either move the pelvis relative to the femur or we can move the femur relative to the pelvis.
Since the glutues maximus and gluteus minimus are both hip rotators, one way we can try to stretch these muscles is by rotating the hip inwards or outwards.
Standing on one leg, we can stretch the gluteus maximus of both legs by turning the pelvis inwards, relative to the standing leg and then turn the lifted leg inwards relative to the pelvis.
Likewise we can stretch the gluteus minimus by turning the pevlis outwards relative to the standing leg and then turn the lifted leg outwards relative to the pelvis.
The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus can both be used to abduct the hip (lift the opposite side hip) and so a way to stretch these muscles is to adduct them. While standing we can do that by either dropping the opposite side hip, by pushing the hips to one side or by combining both actions.
Taking these actions one at a time and focusing on the weighted leg, we can bend the knee of the unweighted leg to helps sink the unweighted-leg-hip. We can thus potentially stretch the gluteus minimus and medius on the weighted side.
We could also push the hips to the weighted leg side. The torso can lean in the opposite direction for balance. This again stretches the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus on the weighted leg (or outside-leg) side.
We could try to combine these actions by pushing the hips to one side and dropping the hip on the other side.
To get a deeper stretch for the gluteus minimus we could combine adduction with external rotation. With weight on one leg we can rotate away from the standing-leg-side so that the gluteus minimus is stretched in external rotation. We can then either push the hips to the side or drop the hip on the unweighted side or do a bit of both to add an adduction stretch to the gluteus minimus.
We can do something similiar for the gluteus maximus, rotating the pelvis towards the standing leg side and then pushing the hips to the side and/or dropping the unweighted side to try to increase the stretch.
One important idea is stretching is you should be able to feel it. When you stretch connective tissue, it should generate a stretching sensation.
Lets change our reference position. Lets lift one leg and place it on a table at hip height or lower so that we can stand comfortably. Looking at the lifted leg, if we rotate it externally, that moves the top of the femur away from the top of the hip bone. This can be one way of lengthening (and potentially stretching) gluteus minimus and medius.
To get more external rotation, we could bend the knee so that the foot is on the table. From there the idea can be to let the knee move downwards.
When trying to stretch the glutes using this position or similiar positions, it can be helpful to actively press the foot down. The idea in doing so is to activate muscles in such a way that ht.
A simple way to stretch the gluteus maximus while standing, at least the deep portion, is to rotate the thigh inwards. Using our standing position we can turn the pelvis towards the standing leg side to stretch the deep glute maximus on the supporting leg side. And we can rotate the lifted leg inwards to stretch the gluteus maximus on that side.
To stretch the gluteus minimus, we can do the opposite, rotate the pelvis outwards relative to the standing leg, and then rotate the lifted leg outwards relative to the pelvis.
Move the leg slightly outwards, and then externally rotate it and the stretch to gluteus minimus may potentially increase. One way to get this rotation is to bend the knee. With the foot on the table the leg can be rotated outwards by dropping the knee to stretch glute minimus and potentially gluteus medius.
One way to stretch gluteus maximus is while sitting to step one foot across the opposite thigh.
Another way is while standing upright to push the hips to one side.
Optionally you can cross one leg behind and from there work at dropping the front leg hip to stretch the glutes of the back leg.
Another option is to bend forwards with the legs internally rotated to target the gluteus maximus.
Bound angle pose is normally taught with the feet pulled close to the pelvis. However, if you move the feet forwards, away from the pelvis, and then bend forwards, the pose then becomes a glute stretch (With feet clo.se to the pelvis this pose is a stretch for the inner thighs.)
As you bend forwards work at spreading the inner edges of the feet. Use the muscles of your ankles and feet as opposed to using your hands.
In addition, press the sides of your feet into the floor. If you feel the sides of your glutes activating, you are doing the foot activation correctly.
To add weight to the stretch lift your hands off of the floor and then reach them forwards.
With hands lifted you'll be strengthening the glutes as well as stretching them.
One of my favorite glute stretches is a variation of the low lunge but with the front foot turned out. (I used to call this "painful pose").
Start in a low lunge with the front foot turned out. Move the back knee rearwards far enough so that your shoulders are over the front foot when viewed from the side.
Press the front knee rearwards so that the inside edge of the foot lifts off of the floor.
Try to touch the back of the knee to the floor. It's probably not going to happen but that's one of the ways to deepen the stretch.
To increase the stretch of your front leg gluteus muscles, bend your elbows and sink your shoulder towards the front foot.
Continue to push the front knee back and down. To add weight to the pose lift the back knee. (Back toes can be tucked under or they can point back so that the top of the foot is on the floor.)
To target the glutes a bit more, it can help to externally rotate the leg that you are stretching.
These hip stretches may be good for runners and/or people who suffer from sciatic nerve pain. These poses can be counterposed with inner thigh or adductor stretches.
A variation of the above glute stretch is runners stretch.
You could also try grabbing the bottom foot with both hands. Then use your arms to pull your chest towards your foot.
Once you can grab the foot, increase the stretch by moving the bottom foot rearwards so that the supporting knee moves higher.
You can also try levering the "grabbed" foot forwards so that your armpit moves closer to the foot.
Arm pit pose is a fun way to stretch the glutes and the shoulders at the same time.
To get into armpit pose you need to have your elbow reach past the outer edge of the top foot.
From there internally rotate the arm, bend the elbow and reach the hand along the inside of the bottom leg and then try to reach it behind the back.
Try to clasp hands behind the back.
This pose not only stretches the glute of the externally rotated leg, it also stretches the shoulders.
Pigeon pose is perhaps on of the most common glute stretches.
To learn how to keep your knee safe in this pose (as well as some options for the "hip lifted" version of this pose), check out yoga pigeon pose.
Other variations include doing pigeon pose glute stretch with the front leg hip on the ground.
To increase the glute stretch you can reach the same side shoulder towards your foot.
Yet another variation of pigeon pose is double pigeon.
Work at pressing both feet down in this double leg glute stretch. Press the bottom foot into the floor, then press the top foot into the knee of the bottom leg.
This final stretch can be extremely uncomfortable but is a good way to stretch the iliotibial band, or perhaps more exactly, the muscles that work on it.
Start with one leg crossed over the other. (You may find it easier to start with if you sit on yoga blocks to raise your hips higher!)
Use your hands to press your knees towards each other. Ideally (and this may take some practice) your knees will be stacked over each other.
The stretch is a little less intense if you move your feet rearwards. For a more intense stretch move the feet forwards enough so that the feet and knees are all in one line. (Not shown.)
Sit up tall and focus on breathing deeply and smoothly.
Note that if you have a chronically tight IT band, it may be tight because it is compensating for something else. So rather than just using this stretch I'd suggest also working on hip stability. A simple way to work on hip stability is to practice balancing on one foot. You can also try balancing one leg while binding the non-standing leg.***
The following yoga hip stretches are for the back of the hip joint. These differ from hamstring stretches in that the knee is bent and these stretches can be used as preparations for hamstring stretching.